|GLADX: an automated approach to analyze the lineage-specific loss and pseudogenization of genes. |
Auteur(s): Dainat Jacques, Paganini Julien, Pontarotti Pierre, Gouret Philippe
(Article) Publié: Plos One, vol. 7 p.e38792 (2012)
Ref HAL: hal-00831091_v1
PubMed Central: 3377690
Exporter : BibTex | endNote
A well-established ancestral gene can usually be found, in one or multiple copies, in different descendant species. Sometimes during the course of evolution, all the representatives of a well-established ancestral gene disappear in specific lineages; such gene losses may occur in the genome by deletion of a DNA fragment or by pseudogenization. The loss of an entire gene family in a given lineage may reflect an important phenomenon, and could be due either to adaptation, or to a relaxation of selection that leads to neutral evolution. Therefore, the lineage-specific gene loss analyses are important to improve the understanding of the evolutionary history of genes and genomes. In order to perform this kind of study from the increasing number of complete genome sequences available, we developed a unique new software module called GLADX in the DAGOBAH framework, based on a comparative genomic approach. The software is able to automatically detect, for all the species of a phylum, the presence/absence of a representative of a well-established ancestral gene, and by systematic steps of re-annotation, confirm losses, detect and analyze pseudogenes and find novel genes. The approach is based on the use of highly reliable gene phylogenies, of protein predictions and on the analysis of genomic mutations. All the evidence associated to evolutionary approach provides accurate information for building an overall view of the evolution of a given gene in a selected phylum. The reliability of GLADX has been successfully tested on a benchmark analysis of 14 reported cases. It is the first tool that is able to fully automatically study the lineage-specific losses and pseudogenizations. GLADX is available at http://ioda.univ-provence.fr/IodaSite/gladx/.